When filtered through KDF® media, soluble lead cations are reduced to insoluble lead atoms, which are electroplated onto the surface of the media. Other heavy metals bond to the media and may be recovered when the exhausted media pass through a copper smelter.
- New Jersey's Department of Environmental Protection and Energy uses KDF 55 redox alloy medium in point-of-entry treatment systems (POET) to remove mercury in residential applications. KDF media consistently reduce mercury from initial concentrations of 13 ppb through 24 ppb (parts per billion) to concentration levels below 0.5 ppb.
- Major U.S. circuit board manufacturer uses KDF media for 94.4% of lead removal in the effluent water used to rinse off printed circuit boards. The water is now recycled in a closed-loop rinse-down system, which saves the company approximately $10,000 each year.